About the Centre for Comparative Construction Research

The Centre for Comparative Construction Research (CCCR) currently occupies a niche position by specialising in research on performance and productivity issues of the global construction industry, and other matters relating to comparative construction, such as:

  • project management effectiveness
  • building quality
  • building refurbishment and retrofit
  • construction productivity
  • green building design
  • environmental impact
  • infrastructure procurement and finance

Our objectives for the next three years are to build our reputation and influence, expand our international reach, and improve our performance metrics to the level of a University Research Centre.

Our designated field of research (FoR) remains 1202 Building and our activities are built on three pillars:

  • producing high quality publications
  • building collaborative partnerships
  • attracting external funding

CCCR aims to provide a supportive training environment for Higher Degree by Research (HDR) students and an advisory service to local industry.

Core objectives comprise:

  • Publish research outcomes in well-respected international journals.
  • Partner with colleagues from academia and industry to work on larger problems and to share expertise.
  • Apply for external grants through the Australian Research Council.
  • Establish a critical mass of HDR students and research assistants supported, where possible, by external funds.
  • Undertake consultancy services through Research Services.
  • Host events to promote the work of the Centre.

Bond University’s Centre for Comparative Construction Research (CCCR) was declared the Australian Institute of Project Management (AIPM) Queensland State Winner of the inaugural Project Management Achievement Award for Research in 2016. Professor Craig Langston, Director of CCCR, attended the award presentation evening on August 13 at the Brisbane Town Hall on behalf of the University.

Each state and territory held their individual award presentations prior to the joint AIPM National Conference and International Project Management Association (IPMA) Regional Conference at the Hilton hotel in Sydney (October 16-19). CCCR is now extremely pleased to announce that it is both the 2016 inaugural National Winner of the Project Management Achievement Award for Research and the 2016 Asia-Pacific Regional Winner for Research. CCCR was also a finalist in the 2017 IPMA Research Award.

The awards relate to research on measuring project deliver success (PDS). Measuring PDS is critical for evaluating project management performance and supporting continuous improvement. It represents an agenda within CCCR to develop and apply generic key performance indicators to compare planned and actual project outcomes in terms of value, efficiency, speed, innovation, complication and impact.

A PDS score can be derived from the 3D Integration Model built around PMBOK® Guide knowledge areas (plus a new area for Project Environmental Management). It is used to assess and rank a diverse range of projects within and/or across organisations as well as summarise their contribution to wider economic, social and environmental objectives.

Further work is underway to utilise the model’s six key performance indicators for the purpose of measuring organisational maturity. It is widely understood that organisations are more likely to deliver successful projects if they have systems in place that reflect a mature project environment based on a culture of continuous improvement.

Read more: https://bond.edu.au/news/48799/research-centre-wins-award-hat-trick

  • 2018 – Langston, C., Meikle, J. and Best, R. Energy infrastructure construction cost modelling for developing countries, The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), US$8,000.
  • 2018 – Langston, C., Meikle, J. and Best, R. Road infrastructure construction cost modelling for developing countries, The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU), US$15,000.
  • 2014 - 2017 – Chan, E., Langston, C. A framework for the analysis of embodied carbon and construction cost of heritage conservation projects, Hong Kong RGC Project HK$690,000.
  • 2009 - 2012 – Langston, C., Smith, J., Herath, G., Datta, S., Doloi, H., Crawford, R.H., Making better decisions about built assets: learning by doing, ARC Linkage Project $180,000 (plus $135,000 industry cash) LP0990261 (Industry partners: Williams Boag Architects and Assetic Australia).
  • 2012 - 2014 – Love, P., Ekambaram, P., Smith, J., Davis, P, Infrastructure project delivery: a life cycle evaluation model for public private partnerships, ARC Linkage Project $90,000 (plus $75,000 industry cash) LP120100347 (Industry partners: John Holland Pty Ltd and WA Department of Treasury and Finance).
  • 2014 - 2016 – Love, P., Ackermann, F., Smith, J., Ekambaram, P, Error mitigation in infrastructure projects, ARC Discovery Project $375,000 DP140100718.
  • 2012 – Best, R., Langston, C., de Valence, G., Construction Forestry Mining Energy Union of Victoria $22,500.

Our team

Well known in the area of comparative construction research:

The following people regularly collaborate with CCCR members:

  • Paul Thomas (AECOM, London)
  • Chris Carson (Unitec, NZ)
  • Göran Runeson (University of Technology, Sydney)
  • Professor Ken Walsh (San Diego State University)
  • Professor Heng Li (Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
  • Professor Martin Loosemore (University of NSW)
  • Professor Liyin Shen (Chongqing University).


  • The UN-Habitat University Partnership (established in 2011) provides access to UN data and UN-sponsored conferences such as the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012
  • The International Research Alliance for Sustainable Development (established in 2013) with Chongqing University, University of Montreal, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, NICMAR, University of Florida, and UWS is undertaking research into sustainable practices in the built environment where Bond’s contribution relates to green building performance and the measurement of ‘workplace ecology’.

Research incubators

TAED is a research incubator within CCCR dedicated to exploring the fusion between tectonic architecture and ecological design. [Con]structural forms are prioritized as art and therefore take a prominent role in aesthetic design decisions. Equally important, ecological principles such as biomimicry must be integrated with tectonics to provide solutions that reflect a long life, loose fit, low energy mandate. TAED’s mission is to develop new practice-based ideas that adequately mediate between the anthropo-sphere and eco-sphere, and thereby inform socio-cultural objectives such as human well-being through excellence in architecture and urbanism.

Contact: Associate Professor Daniela Ottmann

PMI-LAB is a research incubator within CCCR dedicated to exploring innovation within project management. A particular focus is measuring and benchmarking project success across a wide variety of project types and life cycle phases, for which several research awards have already been won (i3d3 project). Linked to this is the measurement of maturity levels in project management organizations (MMM project), which is expected to be highly correlated with successful outcomes. PMI-LAB is also undertaking research and development into the use of chat-bots and other forms of artificial intelligence (PM-BOT project) to augment educational objectives for project and program management at Bond University.

Contact: Professor Craig Langston

OPiC is a research incubator within CCCR dedicated to exploring construction productivity in the context of BIM, LEAN and IPD (Integrated Project Delivery). Therefore, OPiC researchers are interested in issues concerning tools, processes and people to improve productivity on construction sites. OPiC’s mission is to research intelligent construction solutions, including a special interest in virtual, augmented and mixed reality technologies, that can be potential 'game-changers' for construction industry performance. This incubator supports our new Master of Integrated Project Delivery degree launching in 2019.

Contact: Associate Professor Jasper Mbachu

Current projects

This book series includes chapters from a number of CCCR members and external collaborators from around the world. It includes most of the recent work of the Centre from 2014-2018.

  • Volume 1 - Best, R. and Meikle, J. eds. (2015) Measuring construction: prices, output and productivity, Routledge.
  • Volume 2 - Best, R. and Meikle, J. eds. (2019) Accounting for construction: frameworks, productivity, cost and performance, Routledge.

The Centre contributed to Turner and Townsend’s International Construction Market Survey, in 2013 - 2018  through the provision of the PPP methodology used to present comparative cost data for 23 countries.

Find out more about the underpinning working paper that led to this collaboration.

CCCR collaborated with The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) in 2018 to develop ways to assess the construction costs of public infrastructure in developing countries. Our role was focused on the comparative cost performance of road and highway construction. A basket of representative labour, material and plant items (known as a roadBLOC) was priced in eight different locations (Russia, Philippines, Pakistan, India, China, Turkey, Bangladesh and Indonesia) to enable projects to be compared based on the number of BLOC baskets needed per unit of measure. For example, how many baskets per metre are required to build a new four-lane arterial road in Istanbul?

The results were compared with a baseline for Sydney of 14,516 roadBLOCs/m. Dhaka had the highest equivalent ‘cost’ of 24,029 roadBLOCs/m, while Manila had the lowest equivalent ‘cost’ of 5,111 roadBLOCs/m. This approach enables different geographic locations to be evaluated using purchasing power parity, avoiding temporal currency fluctuations and inflation. View the global report.

Funded by Mingxi Charity Foundation and Hong Kong Polytechnic University (HKPU), researchers, including Assistant Professor Ruidong Chang from Bond University, as well as undergraduate students mainly from HKPU, National University of Singapore and Tongji University, aim to construct a small net-zero energy exhibition centre using 3D printing technologies. After completion, the project will be donated to Ya’an Polytechnic College situated in Ya’an, China, where earthquakes happen frequently.

Through this project, researchers will investigate BIM-enabled 3D printing software platforms (HKPU), energy efficiency and productivity of 3D printing (Bond University), as well as material and structural tests of 3D printed structures (Sichuan University and HKPU). The project is expected to be completed by the end of 2018.

Main stakeholders involved in this project include Ya’an Polytechnic College (future owner), Mingxi Charity Foundation (funder), HKPU (funder, research and project implementation), Tongji University (design), Winsun (contractor for off-site printing), BuildPrint (contractor for on-site printing), Bond University (research), Sichuan University (research), and Ya’an Administration Centre of NGOs (project facilitator).

A people-inspired/ eco-integrated/ climate-adaptive design initiative to add to the development of PAWA School / Ugi Island/ Makira Province / Solomon Islands.

CCCR’s Incubator TAED hosted BArchSt graduands for an internship from January to March 2019.

Here the Architecture Studies graduands explored Social Architectural Design Initiatives for the Solomon Islands under the guidance of Assoc Prof Daniela Ottmann. The group was awarded Scholarships in 2018 to fly to the ‘Solomon Islands Project’  as organised by HSM/ New Colombo Plan and FSD Urban Planning.

The team were able to meet representatives of the provincial government of Makira Island with FSD Urban Planning who have been involved in support projects in KiraKira (Capital of Makira Island) as well as on Ugi Island for a Masterplan upgrading of a Governmental Boarding School “Pawa School”. 

The results of intensive interviews the students have conducted with the students and teachers at Pawa School as well as the previous site analysis of the Urban Planning students are converted into design proposals for a multi-purpose congregation building, staff accommodation, library and general learning area.

A copy of the 'Architectural Analysis & Development Report' can be found HERE.

Professor Craig Langston presented to 250 delegates at the PMIAC19 about his research into ‘The Innovation of Things’. Bond was a Diamond Sponsor of the conference, which was held at Royal Pines on the Gold Coast 27-29 May.

A key message was that innovation is increasingly being viewed through the lens of projects, and that the innovation of things is another way of saying that innovation should be embedded in everything we do. Innovation comprises a combination of design thinking (understand), innovation management (explore) and project management (materialise).

Professor Langston also received the PMIA Research Achievement Award for 2019 at the conference gala dinner.

For a copy of his paper, please click here.

eComposites is an investigation into ecological composite construction materials from local agricultural waste and low emission matrices to support bio-climatic design and construction in the Subtropics.

For a project flyer, please click here.

For further information and updates please contact [email protected]

The project neuroCities investigates the physiological and psychological impact of actual built environments to identify urban stressors. Those can further inform design goals for wellbeing and health-ful cities.

For a project flyer, please click here.

For further information and updates please contact [email protected] 

miniCities is an ecosystem services driven design and test run of a new compact urban model to achieve an ecologically sustainable urban and architectural development.

One research output ‘MiniCity: a Holistic modelling and optimisation for sustainable design of buildings and communities' will be presented at the 23rd International Congress on Modelling and Simulation MODSIM2019

For a project flyer, please click here.

For further information and updates please contact [email protected]