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About the Centre

The Centre for Comparative Construction Research (CCCR) is focused on creating new insight into the performance of the built environment, through an interdisciplinary evidence-based process of:

  • translating sustainable design into superior urban infrastructure,
  • transforming intelligent assembly into safer and more productive construction practices, and
  • transcending benefits realisation into successful financial, social, ethical and environmental outcomes.

Our vision is to be a respected and independent source of research concerning the contribution that the built environment makes to our collective prosperity. Our impact can be assessed in terms of collaborative industry links and funding support. Bond University is, unsurprisingly, a signatory to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDG1-17).

The strength of CCCR lies in its interdisciplinary collaboration combining, but not limited to, architecture, construction and urban planning expertise. Buildings and other urban infrastructure have become complicated and expensive assets that reflect a mix of financial, social, ethical and environmental characteristics. Our research is cognisant of expected trends in future practice – climate change, automation and globalisation.   The nexus of our research interests is achieving progressive built environment infrastructure.

Our team

Well known in the area of comparative construction research:

The following people regularly collaborate with CCCR members:

  • Paul Thomas (AECOM, London)
  • Chris Carson (Unitec, NZ)
  • Göran Runeson (University of Technology, Sydney)
  • Professor Ken Walsh (San Diego State University)
  • Professor Heng Li (Hong Kong Polytechnic University)
  • Professor Martin Loosemore (University of NSW)
  • Professor Liyin Shen (Chongqing University).


  • The UN-Habitat University Partnership (established in 2011) provides access to UN data and UN-sponsored conferences such as the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development in 2012
  • The International Research Alliance for Sustainable Development (established in 2013) with Chongqing University, University of Montreal, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, NICMAR, University of Florida, and UWS is undertaking research into sustainable practices in the built environment where Bond’s contribution relates to green building performance and the measurement of ‘workplace ecology’.

Research incubators

TAED is a research incubator within CCCR dedicated to exploring the fusion between tectonic architecture and ecological design. [Con]structural forms are prioritized as art and therefore take a prominent role in aesthetic design decisions. Equally important, ecological principles such as biomimicry must be integrated with tectonics to provide solutions that reflect a long life, loose fit, low energy mandate. TAED’s mission is to develop new practice-based ideas that adequately mediate between the anthropo-sphere and eco-sphere, and thereby inform socio-cultural objectives such as human well-being through excellence in architecture and urbanism.

Contact: Associate Professor Daniela Ottman

PMI-LAB is a research incubator within CCCR dedicated to exploring innovation within project management. A particular focus is measuring and benchmarking project success across a wide variety of project types and life cycle phases, for which several research awards have already been won (i3d3 project). Linked to this is the measurement of maturity levels in project management organizations (MMM project), which is expected to be highly correlated with successful outcomes. PMI-LAB is also undertaking research and development into the use of chat-bots and other forms of artificial intelligence (PM-BOT project) to augment educational objectives for project and program management at Bond University.

Contact: Professor Craig Langston

OPiC is a research incubator within CCCR dedicated to exploring construction productivity in the context of BIM, LEAN and IPD (Integrated Project Delivery). Therefore, OPiC researchers are interested in issues concerning tools, processes and people to improve productivity on construction sites. OPiC’s mission is to research intelligent construction solutions, including a special interest in virtual, augmented and mixed reality technologies, that can be potential 'game-changers' for construction industry performance. This incubator supports our new Master of Integrated Project Delivery degree launching in 2019.

Contact: Associate Professor Jasper Mbachu

Current projects

BLOCKCHAIN: Future Potential for the Built Environment

One of our students, Udai Gomez, has prepared an excellent research report on the potential of blockchain as a platform for a range of built environment applications. The report is entitled "BLOCKCHAIN: Unblocking the roadblocks towards a collaborative construction industry". Please find it attached here.

If you would like to follow up on this report, you are welcome to contact Professor Craig Langston or Udai Gomez direct.


This book series includes chapters from a number of CCCR members and external collaborators from around the world. It includes most of the recent work of the Centre from 2014-2018.

  • Volume 1 - Best, R. and Meikle, J. eds. (2015) Measuring construction: prices, output and productivity, Routledge.
  • Volume 2 - Best, R. and Meikle, J. eds. (2019) Accounting for construction: frameworks, productivity, cost and performance, Routledge.

The Centre contributed to Turner and Townsend’s International Construction Market Survey, in 2013 - 2018  through the provision of the PPP methodology used to present comparative cost data for 23 countries.

CCCR collaborated with The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) and the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) in 2018 to develop ways to assess the construction costs of public infrastructure in developing countries. Our role was focused on the comparative cost performance of road and highway construction. A basket of representative labour, material and plant items (known as a roadBLOC) was priced in eight different locations (Russia, Philippines, Pakistan, India, China, Turkey, Bangladesh and Indonesia) to enable projects to be compared based on the number of BLOC baskets needed per unit of measure. For example, how many baskets per metre are required to build a new four-lane arterial road in Istanbul?

The results were compared with a baseline for Sydney of 14,516 roadBLOCs/m. Dhaka had the highest equivalent ‘cost’ of 24,029 roadBLOCs/m, while Manila had the lowest equivalent ‘cost’ of 5,111 roadBLOCs/m. This approach enables different geographic locations to be evaluated using purchasing power parity, avoiding temporal currency fluctuations and inflation. View the global report.

The i3d3 project involves a team of researchers from our PMI_LAB incubator, led by Professor Craig Langston.

The team have developed a model for measuring the success of projects regardless of type, size, location or date. Our latest paper can be found here and a downloadable calculation template is freely available for use here.

In conjunction with the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and The Economist Intelligence Unit, we have also applied the i3d3 methodology on two case studies here and here.

This project is the basis of ongoing consulting work with our research partners, a major RGC grant application together with the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, and three PhD theses at various stages of completion.

This model has recently been endorsed by the Global Alliance for the Project Professions (GAPPS). More information on GAPPS can be found at

A people-inspired/ eco-integrated/ climate-adaptive design initiative to add to the development of PAWA School / Ugi Island/ Makira Province / Solomon Islands.

CCCR’s Incubator TAED hosted BArchSt graduands for an internship from January to March 2019.

Here the Architecture Studies graduands explored Social Architectural Design Initiatives for the Solomon Islands under the guidance of Assoc Prof Daniela Ottmann. The group was awarded Scholarships in 2018 to fly to the ‘Solomon Islands Project’  as organised by HSM/ New Colombo Plan and FSD Urban Planning.

The team were able to meet representatives of the provincial government of Makira Island with FSD Urban Planning who have been involved in support projects in KiraKira (Capital of Makira Island) as well as on Ugi Island for a Masterplan upgrading of a Governmental Boarding School “Pawa School”. 

The results of intensive interviews the students have conducted with the students and teachers at Pawa School as well as the previous site analysis of the Urban Planning students are converted into design proposals for a multi-purpose congregation building, staff accommodation, library and general learning area.

A copy of the 'Architectural Analysis & Development Report' can be found HERE.

Professor Craig Langston presented to 250 delegates at the PMIAC19 about his research into ‘The Innovation of Things’. Bond was a Diamond Sponsor of the conference, which was held at Royal Pines on the Gold Coast 27-29 May.

A key message was that innovation is increasingly being viewed through the lens of projects, and that the innovation of things is another way of saying that innovation should be embedded in everything we do. Innovation comprises a combination of design thinking (understand), innovation management (explore) and project management (materialise).

Professor Langston also received the PMIA Research Achievement Award for 2019 at the conference gala dinner.

For a copy of his paper, please click here.

eComposites is an investigation into ecological composite construction materials from local agricultural waste and low emission matrices to support bio-climatic design and construction in the Subtropics.

For a project flyer, please click here.

For further information and updates please contact [email protected]

The project neuroCities investigates the physiological and psychological impact of actual built environments to identify urban stressors. Those can further inform design goals for wellbeing and health-ful cities.

View the project flyer

For further information and updates please contact [email protected]

miniCities is an ecosystem services driven design and test run of a new compact urban model to achieve an ecologically sustainable urban and architectural development.

One research output ‘MiniCity: a Holistic modelling and optimisation for sustainable design of buildings and communities' will be presented at the 23rd International Congress on Modelling and Simulation MODSIM2019

For a project flyer, please click here.

For further information and updates please contact [email protected] 

One of our students, David Saccardo, has prepared an excellent research report on the impact of emerging technologies. His report can be viewed here.

If you would like to follow up on this report, you are welcome to contact Professor Craig Langston or David Saccardo direct.