1. Explain the history, scope and future of microbiology. 2. Describe the differences between the major groups of pathogenic organisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites) in terms of structure and function. 3. Describe the broad principles of how the human body resists infection, and how microbes can circumvent these defensive measures. 4. Explain the relationship between normal microbial flora and pathogens to human sustainability, health, and disease. 5. Discuss how antibiotics and other anti microbial drugs fight infectious disease, and the mechanisms by which the microbes develop anti microbial resistance. 6. Explain methods of reducing the spread of infectious diseases; namely disinfection, sterilisation, and immunization. 7. Explain why Staphylococcus aureus and other major bacteria are so successful as pathogens. 8. Describe how the environment, microbiology, and human health interact, with consideration of the sustainable development goals.