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CREMARA 2012-18


This CRE was funded in 2012 by an NHMRC grant APP1044904 for 5 years with $2.5. Its purpose is to provide research into the potentially reversible factors that give rise to antibiotic resistance from antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory infections.

Chief Investigators:

  • Prof Chris del Mar, Bond University
  • Prof Paul Glasziou, Bond University
  • Prof John Lowe, University of the Sunshine Coast
  • Prof Mieke van Driel, University of Queensland
  • Prof Tammy Hoffmann, Bond University
  • Assoc Prof David Looke, Princess Alexandra Hospital
  • Assoc Prof Elaine Beller, Bond University


Antibiotic resistance is an international threat to health causing avoidable deaths and harm, and a substantial health resource waste. The Centre for Research Excellence (CRE) in Minimising Antibiotic Resistance for Acute Respiratory Infections focuses on minimising antibiotic resistance by addressing its two major contributors: antibiotic overuse, particularly in acute respiratory infections when antibiotics are most commonly prescribed; and the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between people.

The CRE will support the design, evaluation and translation of urgently needed interventions; contribute to national and international policy; and build workforce capacity to handle current and emerging threats to national and international health as a result of antibiotic resistance. Knowledge generation methods will include: meta-analyses, randomised trials, meta-regression, modelling, population surveys and qualitative research. Research will occur in five main areas:

  1. Benefits and harms of antibiotics: updated reviews of benefits and new systematic reviews of harms will be done to correct the insufficient focus on harms which has distorted clinicians’ and patients’ benefits-harms judgement.
  2. Physical barriers: key elements of effective physical barrier interventions will be analysed in a meta-regression.
  3. Pharmaceutical packaging of antibiotics: we will research current packaging effects and community behaviours contributing to antibiotic resistance.
  4. Construction and validation of a causal model to determine relative contributions of each source of resistance and potential effect of each intervention. This will be informed by research in Areas 1-3 and epidemiological data.
  5. Development and evaluation of interventions to minimise antibiotic resistance: numerous innovative interventions, informed by research in Areas 1-4, and aimed at clinicians, patients, policy-makers and other key stakeholders, will be developed and evaluated.