In this subject students will extend the knowledge and skills gained in earlier chemistry subjects to investigate the principal biomolecules (carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids), enzymes, and the bioenergetic basis of human metabolism (prior to, during and after exercise and training) through an examination of the major catabolic and anabolic pathways. This will include coverage of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, TCA cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, B-oxidation, as well as carbohydrate, fatty acid and amino acid metabolism. In addition, the structure of a “gene” and regulation of its expression through transcriptional and translational processes will be examined. The subject will also enhance laboratory skills via use of experimental techniques such as spectrophotometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and western blotting.
|Academic unit:||Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine|
|Subject title:||Biochemistry of Exercise and Sport|
Delivery & attendance
|Prescribed resources:|| |
|[email protected] & Email:||[email protected] is the online learning environment at Bond University and is used to provide access to subject materials, lecture recordings and detailed subject information regarding the subject curriculum, assessment and timing. Both iLearn and the Student Email facility are used to provide important subject notifications. Additionally, official correspondence from the University will be forwarded to students’ Bond email account and must be monitored by the student.|
To access these services, log on to the Student Portal from the Bond University website as www.bond.edu.au
There are no co-requisites.
Assurance of learning
Assurance of Learning means that universities take responsibility for creating, monitoring and updating curriculum, teaching and assessment so that students graduate with the knowledge, skills and attributes they need for employability and/or further study.
At Bond University, we carefully develop subject and program outcomes to ensure that student learning in each subject contributes to the whole student experience. Students are encouraged to carefully read and consider subject and program outcomes as combined elements.
Program Learning Outcomes (PLOs)
Program Learning Outcomes provide a broad and measurable set of standards that incorporate a range of knowledge and skills that will be achieved on completion of the program. If you are undertaking this subject as part of a degree program, you should refer to the relevant degree program outcomes and graduate attributes as they relate to this subject.
Subject Learning Outcomes (SLOs)
On successful completion of this subject the learner will be able to:
- Analyse and evaluate the scientific literature relevant to the biochemistry of exercise and sports science.
- Identify and describe the structure of the principal biomolecules.
- Explain the major anabolic and catabolic pathways associated with the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, amino acids and nucleic acids at rest, during and after exercise.
- Describe the structure of a gene and the processes by which gene expression is regulated.
- Conduct laboratory-based experiments and analyse, interpret and present the results.
|Laboratory Report||Laboratory report (1500 words)||15%||Week 5||1, 2, 3, 5.|
|Computer-aided Test (Closed)||Test - midsemester||20%||Week 6||1, 2, 3.|
|Laboratory Report||Laboratory Report (2000 words)||20%||Week 9||1, 3, 5.|
|Skills Test||Laboratory test||15%||Week 12||1, 3, 5.|
|Paper-based Examination (Closed)||EOS Theory Exam||30%||Final Examination Period||1, 2, 3, 4.|
- * Assessment timing is indicative of the week that the assessment is due or begins (where conducted over multiple weeks), and is based on the standard University academic calendar
- C = Students must reach a level of competency to successfully complete this assessment.
|High Distinction||85-100||Outstanding or exemplary performance in the following areas: interpretative ability; intellectual initiative in response to questions; mastery of the skills required by the subject, general levels of knowledge and analytic ability or clear thinking.|
|Distinction||75-84||Usually awarded to students whose performance goes well beyond the minimum requirements set for tasks required in assessment, and who perform well in most of the above areas.|
|Credit||65-74||Usually awarded to students whose performance is considered to go beyond the minimum requirements for work set for assessment. Assessable work is typically characterised by a strong performance in some of the capacities listed above.|
|Pass||50-64||Usually awarded to students whose performance meets the requirements set for work provided for assessment.|
|Fail||0-49||Usually awarded to students whose performance is not considered to meet the minimum requirements set for particular tasks. The fail grade may be a result of insufficient preparation, of inattention to assignment guidelines or lack of academic ability. A frequent cause of failure is lack of attention to subject or assignment guidelines.|
For the purposes of quality assurance, Bond University conducts an evaluation process to measure and document student assessment as evidence of the extent to which program and subject learning outcomes are achieved. Some examples of student work will be retained for potential research and quality auditing purposes only. Any student work used will be treated confidentially and no student grades will be affected.
Students must check the [email protected] subject site for detailed assessment information and submission procedures.
Policy on late submission and extensions
A late penalty will be applied to all overdue assessment tasks unless an extension is granted by the subject coordinator. The standard penalty will be 10% of marks awarded to that assessment per day late with no assessment to be accepted seven days after the due date. Where a student is granted an extension, the penalty of 10% per day late starts from the new due date.
Policy on plagiarism
University policy on plagiarism defines plagiarism as taking and using another person's thoughts, ideas or writings and passing them off as one's own. The University considers the act of plagiarizing to be a breach of the Student Conduct Code and, therefore, subject to the Discipline Regulations which provide for a range of penalties including the reduction of marks or grades, fines and suspension from the University.
Feedback on assessment
Feedback on assessment will be provided to students within two weeks of the assessment submission due date, as per the Assessment Policy.
If you have a disability, illness, injury or health condition that impacts your capacity to complete studies, exams or assessment tasks, it is important you let us know your special requirements, early in the semester. Students will need to make an application for support and submit it with recent, comprehensive documentation at an appointment with a Disability Officer. Students with a disability are encouraged to contact the Disability Office at the earliest possible time, to meet staff and learn about the services available to meet your specific needs. Please note that late notification or failure to disclose your disability can be to your disadvantage as the University cannot guarantee support under such circumstances.
Isomers, chiral, aldose (Glucose), ketose (Fructose), L- & D- forms, glycosidic bonds, Mono-/di-/poly- saccharides, Glycogen as a CHO store in humans.
Amino acid (Groups = amino, carboxyl, side-chain), pKa of ionisable groups, peptide bonds, peptides and proteins. Haemoglobin as an allosteric protein; Immunoglobulin structure & function.
Lipids = heterogeneous, fatty acids (acyl chain & carboxyl group/pKa), Glycerol, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, steroids. Nucleic acids: DNA, RNA, nucleotides, nucleosides, nitrogenous bases (A,T,C,G,U), base-pairing.
Active site, Allosteric site, Enzyme kinetics (Km, Vmax, Vo, turnover number), Enzyme regulation (Allosteric , Colavent), Kinase (add phosphate), Phosphatase (remove phosphate), co-enzymes, co-factors, Hormonal regulation of glycogenolysis via covalent & allosteric mechanisms.
Enthalpy (H), Entropy (S), Free-energy (G), Free-energy change (delta G), Standard & non-standard conditions, intermediate electron carriers, (NAD+/NADH, FAD/FADH2), REDOX (reduction/oxidation), reduction potential (E), oxygen as the "terminal electron acceptor".
Glycolysis (Definition & budget), energy investment phase, energy pay-off phase, substrate-level phosphorylation, aerobic v anaerobic conditions, ATP formation, lactate formation, regulation (ATP, fructose 2,6 bisphosphate, hormonal - insulin, glucagon, epinephrine).
Gluconeogenesis - Hepatic (Definition & budget), By-pass reactions, Regulation of gluconeogenesis & glycolysis (Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, ATP), Hormonal control (insulin, glucagon, epinephrine), Glycogenesis, Glycogenolysis, Pentose Phosphate Pathway - substrate & products.
TCA = Kreb's cycle, Citric Acid Cycle (Definition & budget), REDOX reactions, substrate-level phosphorylation, Oxaloacetate as reactant & product; Pyruvate Dehydrogease (PDH) reaction = oxidative decarboxylation.
Oxidative Phosphorylation (Definition & Budget), Mitochondria, Role of NADH & FADH2, REDOX reactions, Molecular oxygen (O2) as "terminal electron acceptor", Relationship to reduction potential, Chemiosmotic Theory, ATP synthase, ATP production per glucose, ATP/O2 ratio.
Fatty acid catabolism (Consider acyl chains with an "odd" & "even" number of carbons) = B-oxidation (4 reactions), REDOX reactions, Role of NAD+ & FAD; ATP production & ATP/O2 ratio. Fatty acid synthase - use of NADPH as "reducing power", Reaction sequence, Saturated C-16 fatty acid (Palmitate) as product, Essential fatty acids, Synthesis of triacylglycerols. Amino acid degradation, Urea cycle.
The "gene" and processes of gene expression, transcription, translation, genotype, phenotype, regulation by exercise & training.